By Charles E. Connerly
One of Planetizen’s most sensible Ten Books of
"But for Birmingham," Fred Shuttleworth recalled President John
F. Kennedy announcing in June 1963 whilst he invited black leaders to satisfy with him, "we would
no longer be right here today." Birmingham is widely known for its civil rights historical past, really for
the violent white-on-black bombings that happened there within the Nineteen Sixties, leading to the
city’s nickname "Bombingham." what's much less popular approximately Birmingham’s
racial background, although, is the level to which early urban making plans judgements inspired and
triggered the city’s civil rights protests. the 1st book-length paintings to investigate this
connection, "The so much Segregated urban in America": urban making plans and Civil Rights in
Birmingham, 1920–1980 uncovers the influence of Birmingham’s city planning
judgements on its black groups and divulges how those judgements led on to the civil
Spanning over sixty years, Charles E. Connerly’s study
starts off within the Twenties, while Birmingham used city making plans as an excuse to enforce racial zoning
legislation, pointedly sidestepping the 1917 U.S. ideally suited court docket Buchanan v. Warley determination that had
struck down racial zoning. the results of this obstruction used to be the South’s longest-standing
racial zoning legislation, which lasted from 1926 to 1951, while it used to be redeclared unconstitutional by
the U.S. superb court docket. although African american citizens constituted at the very least 38 percent
of Birmingham’s citizens, they confronted drastic barriers to their freedom to decide on where
to dwell. while in the1940s they rebelled through trying to buy houses in off-limit areas,
their efforts have been classified as a problem to urban making plans, leading to govt and court
interventions that turned violent. greater than fifty bombings ensued among 1947 and 1966,
changing into nationally publicized basically in 1963, whilst 4 black women have been killed within the bombing of
the 16th road Baptist Church.
Connerly successfully uses
Birmingham’s heritage for example to argue the significance of spotting the hyperlink that
exists among urban making plans and civil rights. His demonstration of the way Birmingham’s
race-based making plans legacy resulted in the confrontations that culminated within the city’s
fight for civil rights presents a clean lens at the background and way forward for city making plans, and
its relation to race.
Read or Download The Most Segregated City in America": City Planning and Civil Rights in Birmingham, 1920–1980 (Center Books) PDF
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Additional info for The Most Segregated City in America": City Planning and Civil Rights in Birmingham, 1920–1980 (Center Books)
The Most Segregated City in America": City Planning and Civil Rights in Birmingham, 1920–1980 (Center Books) by Charles E. Connerly